1.1. Background and History of School Counseling and the History of Primary School in School Practice and Other Environments
The history of school counseling began officially at the turn of the twentieth century, though the follow-up to the foundations of counseling and guidance was based on the philosophical teachings of ancient Greece and Rome, Plato and Aristotle. There are also some evidence that, in the Middle Ages, Catholic priests practiced the techniques and skills of modern counselors, as demonstrated by the commitment of the concept of confidential religion. Towards the end of the sixteenth century, Tomas Garzoni, Guez, W. & Allen, J. (2000) published Tomas Garzoni's Universal Map of Universities of the World (1626) as one of the first texts on career prospects. However, formal management programs using specialized textbooks started only at the turn of the twentieth century
. Counseling is a term that has long existed in Tanzania. We have recently tried to understand ourselves, advise and develop our potential, recognize the opportunities, and generally help ourselves in the way that formal counseling practices are used. In most communities, there was deeply embedded belief, and it is still within the context that people can help others with their problems in the right circumstances. Some people are helping others find solutions, solving or retrieving problems as Nwoye wrote (2009). At present, in schools, where cooperation between teachers and students is good, students learn in practice. Young people enhance their degree of freedom in their lives as they can and exploit opportunities. At best, help should enable people to lay down chains and effectively handle life situations. Unprecedented economic and social changes have changed our lives over the years. Consequently, all the lessons of the past can not effectively handle the challenges of modern times. Effective counseling, especially in the institutions of learning, has now become more important. Boys and girls, as well as young men and women, must be guided in the relationship between health and the environment, seeking skills, knowledge and attitudes that lead to the success and failure of life. The need for counseling has been of paramount importance in promoting the child's well-being. Effective guidance and counseling can help to improve the self-image of young people and to achieve progress in life. Counseling should authorize girls and boys to fully participate in and benefit from the economic and social development of the nation.
2.0. Definition of Terms
Guide is an action that shows the way for certain people, such as adolescents who do not find the right path. It controls, directs, guides and accompanies. The Guide says "Yes" to someone who asks for help. She says "Yes" to invite a man who wants a temporary partner for life.
Guidance gives guidance to the lonely, confused, moody, the suffering, the sick, and the lost. He points to thinking, feeling and acting. He led psychologically, emotionally and even spiritually to new ways of meaningful life. This is with fear and insecurity, with those who need someone along the rough road of life.
From an objective point of view, guidance is part of the counseling profession. It is called the directive advice. High schools and even college students need help if they do not know what decisions they can or in what direction. The counselor "opens" the electoral world for these people to choose. It's like showing the universe when everything a person sees the lonely planet Earth. The guidance counselor extends and widens the horizons of people who only see a narrow path or a hidden view on this path. Thus, the focus is on opportunities and choices.
Usually, instruction is done in schools. High school and college students require guidance and counseling in their school. More often than not, young people are not aware of what to do, how to react or respond, and how to act in certain decisions. When that happens, they need them older, wiser and more experienced to show them the way and guide them. It is the responsibility of this counseling adviser to extend assistance if needed to those who are confused, uncertain and need advice. However, some adults may need guidance.
Consultancy in Leadership and so on. This is a way of curing pain. It is both science and art. Science because it provides advice, counseling or assistance, the counselor must know the principles and techniques of counseling. The counselor should be able to use any of these principles and techniques as paradigms in order to provide advice. However, it is not enough to use these principles and techniques. Another important aspect is that the counselor can advise – the art of counseling. This aspect of counseling is a relationship, a sharing of life, in the hope that the injured person will heal. As a relationship, counseling involves physical, emotional, psychic or spiritual dimensions. The counselor should be able to have a good relationship with the counselor without being too intimate or too close to comfort or being too far away or far away. The emotional dimension of counseling includes empathy, sensitivity, and non-verbal signaling of counselors to understand uncompleted complexes or suppressed feelings. The psychic or spiritual dimension includes the counselor's "spiritual content" – within it. It is the interior of so-called personality. The counselor should receive the gift or pardon to see the inner world of the person, especially his state of mind, as this is very important in healing the pains of the patient. Other Definitions of Concepts
Biswalo (1996) defines guidance as a term used to signal a process of self-understanding and self-determination (self-determination) to maximize adaptation to your home, school, or community environment. However, this process depends on the advice. It also determines counseling as a process that helps an individual to accept and use information and advice to solve or cope with his current problem. He continues to note that sometimes the process helps the individual to accept an unacceptable situation, such as losing their loved ones and to somehow change the benefit rather than overcoming the situation. Guez and Allen (2000) noted that a single definition of counseling is difficult to consider. This is because the definitions of counseling depend on theoretical orientation. Counseling is a learning-oriented process that is usually an interactive relationship with a view to helping a person know more about me and using understanding that enables one to become an effective member of society. Counseling is a process by which a helper cares for the cares and concerns of a caregiver and facilitates the person's personal development and promotes change through self-knowledge. Counseling is the relationship between the person concerned and the person required. This relationship is usually a person-person, though sometimes more than two people may be affected. Designed to help people understand and clarify their views and learn how to reach their goals by meaningful, well-informed decisions and solving emotional or interpersonal problems. From these definitions, it can be seen that counseling can have different meanings.
3.0. The Origins of Guidance and Counseling Practice in the Pre-Colonial era
Tanzania's counseling has existed in the various forms and with different interpretations in society before the colonial era. Today's differences and contradictions come from the social and historical forces that have shaped a modern culture. In Tanzania, in all societies of people and at all times experiencing emotional or psychological anxiety and behavioral problems. Each culture was well-grounded in methods and methods to help people's problems. However, there is not enough written source about the origins of guidance and counseling in Tanzania schools. But as in other places before the colonial era, there were outstanding unique elements that could have lived together in the societies. Elements include an extensive family system, including clan and tribe, chief, taboos, various forms of initiation, and close contact with the ancestors and the elder.
The village is at the heart of society. While all these elements are important, only a few are used to illustrate the role of guidance and counseling in today's Tanzanian societies. Basically, traditional bosses had more roles, which included the authorities' authority and regulatory role. As these roles were accepted and respected by everyone, they showed a clear direction in the daily affairs of society. The elders, the boss, also provided valuable guidance and counseling for boys and girls. In most cases, the bosses maintained a vital relationship between the ancestors and the present generation. This relationship was confirmed by ritual rituals and taboos. It is easy to guide and advise young people, as rituals or ceremonies are also prepared to prepare for adult roles in society. The extended family, the clan and the village supported the society. No one liked the stranger. The counseling was easily attempted and ensured. Forms of counseling and counseling were given advice and shared wisdom
4.0. Practice of Guidance and Counseling in Tanzania Schools
4.1. Counseling and Counseling Practices in the Schools of Tanzania
In recognition of this, perhaps because we are thinking about concepts of schooling, we need to think about the importance of counseling in education. It is conceivable that the definitions and reports in the above guidance and counseling are directed to the educational area and are now correctly reported. Guez and Allen (2000) have pointed out that Truman Kelley founded the concept of educational counseling in Makinde (1988) in 1914, providing education services for students providing services that need assistance in important aspects of their education such as courses and study selection , choices of interest and abilities, and the choice of colleges and high schools. Educational counseling enhances the learner's knowledge of educational opportunities.
The increasingly complex composition of society in Tanzania, with social problems, such as HIV / AIDS and the rapid development of science and technology, poses serious demands on education. The school, as an important social institution, was obliged to adapt quickly to changing patterns and prepare citizens for tomorrow's challenges. This is where instruction and counseling in the education system helps boys and girls alike to develop their full capacity. These include intellectual, social, physical and moral abilities. This assistance is most important in Tanzania as long as the history and age of educational offerings and today's systems are present.
In Tanzania schools, the guidance and counseling practices come from the time of vocational training in the colonial period. In Tanzania, the process of creating consultancy services first had to understand the basic factors that affect people's beliefs and comments about such practices. However, he believed that he was not taken into account at that time and could take longer. It is especially important to understand economic, socio-political, religious beliefs, customs and traditions and cultural changes in the various regions of the country. Young people must be understood in this context, but also in the paradoxical situation of the traditional and modern world, but this is a big challenge in Tanzania and in many developing African countries. During the colonial period, there was some professional guidance under the Career Advice handled by career coaches. But the career masters chosen by the school principal did not have professional training in professional counseling. In fact, the obligation was limited to helping students by completing employment forms and typing applications. In missionary schools, professional counseling was confined to religious services. Teachers who are usually fathers, pastors, or have respected and directed the spiritually bent young people to be brothers, brothers, fathers and shepherds at the end of formal education.
Tanzania's schools and counseling were more or less private family affairs. Parents and relatives gave advice to their children in all areas of life management and problem solving. It is true that in many families the general duty of management was the traditional duty of family leaders, father, mother, uncle, aunts and grandparents. In the case of serious personal or family problems, counseling was specially organized by the community rather than in dealing with the problem. This is done without the knowledge of a formal or informal school system, but through experience and age based on collected wisdom. This kind of early counseling from school setting and community has helped young people live in society in the future.
4.2. Learning and Counseling Practices in Tanzania Schools in the Postcolonial Age
In many literatures and sources in Tanzania and some other African countries, counseling and counseling in the education sector is considered to be the youngest discipline. This was done on April 22-26, 2002. A first Africa Youth Advisory and Youth Development Conference held in Kenya, which showed that the Orientation, Advisory and Youth Development Program was held in April 1994 in Africa The First African African Conference on Girls' Education held in 1993 in Ouagadougou. It is designed to introduce or strengthen guidance and advice in African countries. It focuses on capacity building in the countries concerned and organizes trainings on both the regional and national levels for the management and advice of schools and dormitories.
In Tanzania schools we can call vocational guidance and counseling in 1984, the National Arusha Conference held in October 1984, where the government supported guidance and counseling that was an integral part of the country's education system (Biswalo, 1996). The purpose of the conference is to establish systematic criteria for guidance and counseling for high school students. The students were then advised, directed and advised on the selection of the job and the students for further training. This task was given to the career masters and lovers described below, but there was not enough counseling and advisory staff, not only in the responsible department but also in the schools.
Guidance and counseling has slowly become institutionalized and expanding with educational institutions. For example, schools need to take over the task of psychological support for boys and girls. However, Biswalo (1996) notes that in Tanzania policies for guidance and counseling are still missing. However, the Ministry of Education has somehow tried to name the services within the education system with career masters and lovers. He also said that the task of staff is to provide advice to secondary school leaders in order to select students for their jobs and to prepare for admission to further training; to help students understand and develop suitable jobs, training or training; to appreciate students' talents and abilities, and encourage them to help their careers or training in the most appropriate way and to help learners solve their personal problems that can affect their primary school development.
This is an impossible and realistic burden for unskilled personnel. This reflects the apathy of politicians and decision-makers in the new school management and counseling field; the strength of the myth of the intended workforce, in which career guidance is misunderstood as redundant and the lack of qualified staff who provide effective management and counseling services in schools. It is regrettable that, even after the October Arusha Conference on Confirmation of Tanzanian Tanks, where Government support and governmental services were an integral part of the country's education system, the services are still stained and ineffective in Tanzania's educational institutions. Such guidance and counseling is discussed at various primary, secondary and tertiary level by various scientists.
5.0. Guidance and Counseling Practices in Primary and Secondary Schools
In Tanzania, primary school levels were actually and there are no teacher-advisors for specific students. However, teachers themselves have to decide what action to do, as there are no programmed or timed activities for guidance and counseling. Teachers need to use some of the teaching to practice guidance and counseling in and outside the classroom, although not all teachers have gone through a teacher-counselor training. As children go to school, they need to find out about the school, the environment, the school community and the curriculum to encourage and develop the positive attitude of learning and school communities (Biswalo, 1996). As students are older and pass through different degrees, they should focus on studying skills, tackling learning difficulties and other school problems. But this activity does not happen systematically in elementary schools in Tanzania
There is not enough programmed or time-based management and counseling system for high schools yet. In some cases, this task is disciplined by the masters, sometimes by department heads and school leaders. At high school level, students want to look for educational opportunities, all kinds of information, and any other help for educational purposes. These needs are provided by educational counseling and counseling (ibid). At this level, students are assisted by subject choice, study techniques and tests and examinations. Biswalo (1996) has pointed out that sometimes in the material selection of prestigious rivers, such as in science, as many students as possible are proud of the students' actual abilities, interests and attitudes. He said that this unfortunate situation was born in secondary schools because of the lack of genuine education counseling and counseling services.
The school plays an important role in preparing students for continuing secondary education, paid employment, self-employment and life in the community, as clearly defined by the Ministry of Education in the objectives of the high school curriculum. In a unique way, pupils, teachers and parents can fully agree, as some schools focus on preparing for further education, particularly with regard to academic knowledge and the pursuit of success in national trials. That is, high schools where counseling is inadequate place little emphasis on creating a responsible attitude towards citizenship and local, regional or national community life and employment opportunities. However, the informal sector, which includes self-employment, needs to be emphasized in the formal sector, with implicit emphasis on white-collar workplaces.
5.1. Professional, Career Counseling and Counseling
In Tanzania, teachers are able to directly influence students' career prospects. The results and attitudes of students were related to the characteristics and results of their teacher (World Bank, 1995, Nyutu, P.N., and Norman C.G., 2008). However, the impact of the school depends on what formal interaction and communication is between students' students and students, while television and radio work through informal interactions between students. The influence of parents and siblings is both formal and informal
In most cases, it can be in Tanzania and other states where management and counseling rarely occur in schools; parents play a major role in influencing their children's career. Those with a lower qualification, eg. Teachers, officials, drivers, personal secretaries, soldiers, etc. They do not expect their children to follow up because the children with higher levels of learning sometimes seemed to be narrow and incomplete with interest. However, it is suggested that the parents' occupation may influence their children's choice of career, but it is with children who have a general skill in such workplaces and some have job skills that are relevant to workplaces. Access to information through media and other forms of technology is the aspirations of young people who can not largely be content in their own environment. It must be chosen and young people need to acquire the skills to assess situations and make informed choices. Young people in Tanzania do not have a natural, comprehensible order from birth to adulthood.
Provides secondary vocational guidance, but very few because of the lack of school or vocational counselors. With this type of counselor, students are helping fortunate schools, but vocational training is not emphasized because most students, teachers, and of course parents, force students to have long-term learning plans to prepare for the planned career. These counselors are designed with school leaders and teachers to provide students with special skills or disabilities with appropriate placement.
5.2. Higher Level
Higher degree students have orientation and other education counseling and counseling. In Tanzania, higher education institutions at least satisfied the needs of both qualified psychologists and university scholars for qualified students, although their number was low. Here, consultants play a major role in gathering comprehensive information about all aspects of a training career in the institution. Advisers sometimes integrate into the administrative or practical class to organize students' practice and are even more rarely associated with appropriate employment agencies (Biswalo, 1996).
6.0. The concept of guidance and counseling in Tanzania
According to Sima's (2004) research, vocational counseling is still unknown in Tanzania and in several African countries as a separate occupation. However, the emergence and adjustment of HIV / AIDS in the country has strengthened the basis of counseling. This is especially so because of the multifaceted nature of the HIV / AIDS pandemic, attention, unlike other human diseases, goes beyond the prerogative of the medical profession. Thus, counseling is a key way of preventing HIV infection, providing adequate and relevant information and social and psychological support for people who are infected and affected by the pandemic. Ibid continued to say that a number of non-governmental organizations have been providing counseling services since the pandemic has emerged, but there is no clarity about the type and nature of the advisory services. The nature and characteristics of consulting clients are also fuzzy.
In Tanzania, the aforementioned professional counseling is a relatively new phenomenon. Sima (2004) cited Outwater (1995) notes that before the HIV / AIDS epidemic there was no formal counseling service in Tanzanian hospitals, professional counselors and formal counseling systems. It was necessary to fill this gap without providing as many counselors as possible to provide optimal care for AIDS patients and relatives (NACP, 1989, quoted in ibid). Since then, numerous para-professional consultants have been trained in basic skills and counseling skills. At present, there are many counseling centers not only for HIV / AIDS issues, but also for Tanzanian problems. However, since counseling has become popular with the emergence of HIV / AIDS, many people assume that they are only infected by HIV / AIDS and patients and are afraid of being labeled (Sima, 2002, cited by Sima 2004).
7.0. Problems and Challenges
The Tanzanian Government has not yet defined guidance and advice on educational policy issues, despite the fact that schools are crucial and necessary. Biswalo (1996) pointed out that in Tanzania policies for guidance and counseling are still lacking. He continued that efforts to meet the needs of guidance and counseling are obviously hampered by a number of difficulties, including financial resources, to promote well-established small counseling activities for more than one school. In Tanzania, counseling is a relatively new phenomenon so far. There is not enough qualified counselor in schools and other educational institutions. At the same time, there are a limited number of qualified counselors, or are not used well in schools, or are doing other activities rather than what they have been trained. Some of the school counselors are teachers and are fully engaged in teaching tasks. Surprising advice is a key way of preventing HIV infection in providing relevant and relevant information and social and psychological support for HIV / AIDS infected and affected people (Sima, 2004). Slow growth in education systems due to lack of funds, training opportunities and large turnover of consultants for green pastures and suitably qualified advisers. For example, many schools lack counseling offices, trained teacher counselors and counseling tools. A források tekintetében számos lehetőség van a pénzügyi korlátok enyhítésére. Különleges iskolák a rászoruló szülők nevében megközelíthetik a nem kormányzati szervezeteket.
A Tanzániában működő szilárd szakmai tanácsadói szövetség hiánya a megfelelő gyakorlatra vonatkozó előírások meghatározása egy másik kihívás (Nwoye, 2008). A tanzániai főiskolák és egyetemek szakmai tanácsadói képzési programjainak elégtelensége is egy újabb kihívást jelent.
Nincsen erőfeszítés a tanácsadói tanterv kidolgozására a középiskolákban és főiskolákban, valamint az egyetemeken a tanácsadási és tanácsadási tanfolyamokon. Az útmutatás tantervét és a válaszadó szolgáltatásokat úgy lehet strukturálni, hogy foglalkozzon az öt tartalmi területen, nevezetesen az emberi kapcsolatokkal, a karrierfejlesztéssel, a társadalmi értékekkel, az önfejlesztéssel és a tanulási készségekkel. Iránymutató tananyagot lehet tanítani a különböző szintű hallgatóknak vagy kis csoportokba, hogy foglalkozzanak velük hasonló kérdésekkel. Ahhoz, hogy útmutatásokat és tanácsadási programokat biztosítson Tanzániában, szakképzett szakembereket kell alkalmazni az iskolákban való menedzselésre és szolgáltatásnyújtásra. Az ilyen szakembereknek rendelkezniük kell a vonatkozó létesítményekkel és a strukturális támogatással. Ugyanakkor az egyetemek és a tanárképző intézményeknek olyan szakmai programokat kell kialakítaniuk és fejleszteniük, amelyek szakmai tanári tanácsadókat és más irányító személyzetet képeznek
Még mindig nem elegendő a felsőoktatási intézményekben való segítségnyújtás annak érdekében, hogy a diákok elérhessék karrierlehetőségeiket. A mai hallgatók azonban arra utalnak, hogy magasabb igény mutatkozik a pályaorientációra, mint a diákok az elmúlt évtizedben. Ezért a hallgatóknak nagyobb szükségük van arra, hogy megfelelő szakmai információkat szerezzenek, amelyek lehetővé teszik számukra, hogy jobb fizetett munkahelyeket keressenek. Sok iskola a múltban kinevezett néhány tanárt, mint karrier-mestert anélkül, hogy a szükséges pályaorientációs képzést és felszereléseket biztosítaná. Az ilyen karrier-mesterek általában azt feltételezik, hogy minden egyetemista egyetemistákon végződik, és csak arra koncentrál, hogy segítse a hallgatókat az egyetemi pályázati formák teljesítésében. Itt az ideje, hogy a kormány olyan politikát alakítson ki és hajtson végre, amely elősegíti az általános iskoláknak a felsőoktatásra való irányítását és tanácsadását, és olyan szakmai programokat fog kidolgozni, amelyek a szakmai tanári tanácsadókat és más irányító személyzetet képeznek
Az útmutatás és tanácsadás célja, hogy felkészítse a tanulókat az iskolai programjukba, hogy a megfelelő munka világába lépjen, az iskolai tanterv és a foglalkoztatás összekapcsolásával. Ahhoz, hogy az iskola sikeres legyen ebben a törekvésben, a tantárgyakat kellemes és kényelmes környezetben kell tanítani, és a tanulók számára fontosnak és érdekesnek kell lenniük. Egy másik tényező, amelyet figyelembe kell venni, olyan kompetens tanárok felvétele, akik képesek arra, hogy irányítsák és tanácsot adjanak a tanulóknak a munkaerőpiacon tanítottakhoz. Amit tanítanak és hogyan tanítják, nagy hatással lehetnek a tanulók érdeklődésére és észlelésére. In Tanzania the spirit to plan and use guidance and counseling services in the effective development and utilization of their respective young human resources is evidently strong. However, as Biswalo (1996) said the efforts directed towards fulfilling this need are apparently thwarted by several difficulties. It appears total and enlightened commitment on the part of policy and decision makers is necessary and should be definitely surmount the problems.
The emergence of career development in western countries as a construct suggests that it may be an essential area in developing country like Tanzania where students need assistance; students particularly need assistance in selecting colleges and courses. To this end, the schools should offer a career guidance and counseling programme under the able leadership of qualified school counselors.