Introduction of the Akkadian civilization

The Akkadians were groups of 19459002 people from the Arab peninsula at the very moment when the great Sumerian city-states flourished. These people eventually wandered to the north where they met the Sumerians. BC around 2350 an academic military leader Sargon (19459003) – the "legitimate ruler") conquered the Sumerian city states and built an Akkadian empire that created the world's first realm. It was mostly Sumer, and all the way to Lebanon, Syria, Anatolia, and Western Iran. Akkad (Agátus ) was the capital, which became the basis of the name of the people and the language.

The Abbean empire had a central government under the rule of the king under the royal court and the high class of priests. Sargon was most responsible for this development. A strong economy was the foundation of the empire, Sargon and his court stood in the middle of economic activity, unlike the Sumer where the priests said more about economic matters. Their economies are highly dependent on agriculture; their production area was very effective due to the efficient watering system. The productivity of the production area has enabled the growth of the empire's population. Agricultural products were abundant, but the empire was short of anything else. Wood, metal ores and building blocks had to be imported. However, Sargon's military conquest expanded the boundaries of the empire, eventually including regions that were the source of these valuable goods. The king brought great wealth to the empire, which created many bureaucrats and administrators when creating the first bureaucratic organization. This bureaucracy made it possible for him to lead the empire more effectively.

The Akkadian civilization was the extension of the Sumerian civilization; their society was similar to Sumerians. "The status of women was generally similar to Sumerian women, although the" holy woman "legend began in that period. Enheduanna was the first published poet of the world, whose races, glorifying gods, and goddesses are about 4300 years old

Sumerian gods and goddesses were given Akkadian names, but the roles of temple priests and clergy fell. they were foolish, intelligent, shy, humorous, jealous, or angry, and these divinities came from nature, which was understandable, given that the human being and goddess were human beings and gods and goddesses. Mesopotamian life was directed by nature. When it comes to understanding nature, it is human the god of heaven, Enlil the air god, Nanna the moon god and Utu of the goddess. The Mesopotamians believed that these gods had created the universe and everything in it, including of course the people. They also believed that men and women were created by gods to serve the gods-to make sacrifices, to wear them, to obey and obey them. But this religion had no law on ethics or morality. It was good and evil for people to discover it alone. Humanity, according to early Mesopotamians, exists in the service of the gods who are responsible for the smooth running of humanity and the world's general affairs. The world was directed through their representative; in Akkadian civilization it meant Sargon.

The Akkadian people, in a relatively sophisticated agriculture that included irrigation and plowing, discovered the bronze casting method. They also use mud bricks to build houses and temples and have had an advanced ceramic industry.

Formal education at this era was practical, and primarily for training priests and writers. Education started from basic reading, writing and religion, then from legal higher education, medicine and astrology. The upper class youths are generally well-prepared for the scribes, from copiers to librarians and teachers. The excavations also revealed that the priests' schools were as many as the temples, not only the importance of the priests in the Mesopotamian society, but also the thoroughness of priestly education.

The art of Mesopotamians, including the Accadian, is a great refinement during this period; the bronze head of a king, thought by scientists as Sargon, was invented by Ninive (Asian capital, Assyrian empire). It is believed that approx. From 2300 to 2200. This head is a masterpiece of ancient art. Another example is the two cylindrical gaskets that belong to Sargon's time, and these are the most beautiful examples. Naram-Sin (Sargon's grandson) shows relief from sculpture as one of his military victories. Many clay slabs explored in various places in Iraq reveal ancient Mesopotamian literature, especially poems and hymns, and considered their goddesses.

Sargon for fifty-six years (2335 to 2279) and his son, Rimush, later murdered in a palace riot, succeeded him. Another son, Manishtushu, also killed another palace in rebellion. The last king of the Akkadian dynasty, one hundred years old, was Naram-sin and the first to follow the divine right. His fall, and the entire empire, the Russian-born Oriental origin, was called Gutian. However, recent results have provided evidence that droughts of 300 years were the main cause of the death of the empire.

Scientists have discovered that the collapse of the Akkadian empire is about ie2. This civilization depends to a great extent on agriculture; the drought that occurred in this period seriously weakened production and later caused the collapse of the empire. People fled and moved to the south, where agriculture is still sustainable. It was the revival of the earlier glory of the Sumerians, but it did not take long. Finally, the new conquerors followed our Sargon traces and united the urban status of Mesopotamia.

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