Social stratification in the United States
Social stratification is about inequality between different groups of people. Inequality exists in all kinds of societies and cultures. Societies consist of hierarchical layers
The four basic stratification systems are:
3) real estate
slavery, caste, and it was demolished in modern societies, with the exception of some tribal societies.
The social class system primarily describes how the scarce resources (wealth, income, education and occupation) are distributed in society. In other words, the class could be explained to indicate a situation that a person can occupy in society, not equal positions. Thus, in order to analyze the social classes of a society, it is necessary to explain how these resources are distributed and
Despite the fact that inequities in developed countries have decreased rather than earlier societies, but social stratification, inequality and the class conflict is growing. In the United States, the inequality between the rich and the poor has grown to such an extent that the difference between them is greater than any point in the last 75 years. In the United States, every industrialized nation in the world has the greatest wealth difference, and this difference is increasing every year.
In the United States, income is obviously a scarce resource. Obviously, this profession provides income and this education determines the occupation. In the future, income will be linked to the consequences of life, such as the quality and quantity of education, health care and housing, and even life expectancy. Thus, there is an interaction between access to individual resources
in the United States, individual income depends on educational characteristics; In 2005, the majority of people with a doctorate and professional qualification were in 15% of income generators. College graduates were significantly above the national average, and earnings were lower for college graduates.
The noticeable point is that while the population of the United States is increasingly trained at all levels, there is a striking link between income and income. education is still in place.
Another point is that higher education is rarely free; Elite private education costs around $ 120,000 for a four-year program. While public colleges and universities are much less expensive, they are not free. Public and university scholarships and low-interest loans are also available, but the cost of education for many people is high
Overall, educational performance is one of the most important class functions of Americans directly related to
On the one hand, occupational status is a qualification, personal or family income, and access to other resources, including income and health.
Low-income jobs are related to people who are less educated. In these areas, workers are unskilled because they do not require training to carry out such work. However, white collar jobs require more human capital, skill and knowledge, and therefore generate higher income. Higher education is more likely to occupy a professional job where you can earn higher salaries. Therefore, they are less likely to work in low-wage jobs than the less skilled.
Every workplace effect affects lifestyle; Workplace income and prestige determine living conditions, type of food, medical care, social networks, entertainment, leisure and behavior.
Upper secondary, middle and lower secondary education are occupational spectrum scores; unskilled employees, with less than seven years of schooling, high school graduates, college graduates, licensees, MS owners, professionals and professionals with specialized scores. So while all the functions and positions of society do not determine the occupation, the role of the workplace is one of the most important status functions in the United States.
Another feature that determines the position of individuals in society is wealth. Wealth is what people find in tools such as houses, cars, stocks, stocks, saved money and lands.
While the United States is the second rich county in the world, the distribution of wealth is too unfair. 1% of the total population owned 38% of the property, 10% of the population owned 71% of the property, and the other 40% had less than 1% of the nation's wealth
. wealth is much more unequal than the distribution of income (people get a job in a year). in the three-class model, which includes the rich, the middle class and the poor, while in reality the American society is more diverse, economically and sociologically diverse. This means that there is no clear difference between the socio-economic strata.
The most important concept in the stratification class system is social mobility. Social stratification based on birth and individual performance in the class system; personal merit is becoming more and more important. Indeed, industrial societies are moving towards meritocracy, and in such societies, status consistency is lower than in other societies. Because societies have become more competitive and meritocratic, such as energy, social skills, character, ambition, physical attractiveness, talent and luck, they have played a major role in social mobility and changing social situations
. Americans have experienced their lives?
Social mobility refers to changes in social situations that occur in a person's life. There are two ways to study social mobility; Intragenerational mobility and intergenerational mobility.
According to the first concept, we mean upward and downward movement in social ladders, and the second is the upward and downward movement of the social hierarchy compared to the previous generation
. focus on the occupational endurance of the father-child or the household (intergenerational mobility).
If we distinguish six general occupational categories, including senior professionals or managers, lower professional or office, self-employed, technical or skilled trade, economy, unskilled and service providers, in the United States, 32 percent of men born after 1950 were motionless (their occupation was in the same category as their father), 37 per cent moving up and 32 per cent moving down. Data on women show that 27 percent are immobile, 46 percent are moving upwards, and 28 percent are moving down. Then, in the profession, upward mobility was more frequent than downward mobility, and comparison with occupational mobility in other industrialized countries in the United States is quite high.
According to studies, intergenerational flexibility (IGE) was 0.4 or 0.4 in the income between fathers and sons. higher. The actual relationship between parents' and children's income is high.
The mobility of wealth is completely different from occupational and income mobility; firstly, wealth is important because its distribution is more unequal than the distribution of income and on other aspects of family welfare, especially investment in home ownership and child education. There is also significant intergenerational durability in family property, and the correlation in the neighborhood is 0.50. The differences in wealth between generations persist. So people who do not have assets are loose. For example, inherited wealth can place families in better families and school districts than they can afford if they rely on their income.
education and income can be gained and increased over a lifetime, but it is beyond doubt that the rich have more money, more education, better employment, better health and more consumption
. the concept of social stratification, people's behavior cannot be understood because the social class determines every aspect of our life…, our happiness, our religious beliefs, our habits, our interests and our hobbies in our health, and how long we live and our lifestyle.